Site: What's your care  
PTFE nonstick cookware can't stand the heat...


Chemical Releases


Common cooking temperatures


CF4 (carbon tetrafluoride): Global warming gas; affects heart, lungs, and nervous system [1].


Broiling temperature for high-end ovens [7].



CF3COF (trifluoroacetic acid fluoride): degrades to HF & TFA

OFCB (octafluorocyclobutane): Linked to heart palpitations

PFB (perfluorobutane): Global warming gas [1].


Drip pans in stovetop burner

Gas flame on range top [8].



COF2 (carbonyl fluoride): fluorinated version of chemical warfare agent

HF (hydrogen fluoride): Corrosive gas. Kills tissue on contact [2].


Electric coil on range top [8].



PFIB (perfluoroisobutene): Chemical warfare agent [3].


Surface temperature of PTFE-coated pan after heating for 8 minutes on conventional stove [9].



SiF4 (silica tetrafluoride): highly toxic by


Preheated grill [10].



Toxic gasses released:

TFE (tetrafluoroethylene): animal carcinogen

HFP (hexafluoropropene): worker toxicant

TFA (trifluoroacetic acid): poisonous to plants

DFA (difluoroacetic acid): Animal kidney toxicant

MFA (monofluoroacetic acid): lethal to humans at low doses

PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid): animal carcinogen [4].


Birds killed in DuPont lab experiments [5].



Ultrafine particulates released (oxidized PTFE particles) [5].


Searing temperature for meat in oven or grill

Maximum temperature for many ovens



Lowest temperature at which PTFE particles have been measured [6].


Temperature of PTFE-coated light bulbs under which Missouri birds died [11].





Common baking temperature





Birds died from preheated oven [12].



[1] Arito, H and Soda, R. 1977. Pyrolysis products of polytetrafluoroethylene and

polyfluoroethylenepropylene with reference to inhalation toxicity. Ann Occup Hyg 20(3): 247-55.

[2] Scheel, LD., Lane, WC and Coleman, WE. 1968. The toxicity of polytetrafluoroethylene pyrolysis

products including carbonyl fluoride and a reaction product, silicon tetrafluoride. Am Ind Hyg

Assoc J 29(1): 41-8.

[3] Waritz, RS and Kwon, BK. 1968. The inhalation toxicity of pyrolysis products of

polytetrafluoroethylene heated below 500 degrees centigrade. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29(1): 19-26.

[4] Ellis, DA., Mabury, SA., Martin, JW and Muir, DC. 2001. Thermolysis of fluoropolymers as a

potential source of halogenated organic acids in the environment. Nature 412(6844): 321-4.

[5] Waritz, RS. 1975. An industrial approach to evaluation of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

Environ Health Perspect 11: 197-202.

[6] Seidel, WC., Scherer, KV, Jr.., Cline, D, Jr.., Olson, AH., Bonesteel, JK., Church, DF., Nuggehalli, S

and Pryor, WA. 1991. Chemical, physical, and toxicological characterization of fumes produced by

heating tetrafluoroethene homopolymer and its copolymers with hexafluoropropene and

perfluoro(propyl vinyl ether). Chem Res Toxicol 4(2): 229-36.

[7] Viking. Professional Series VGSC. Available online at:

[8] Smart Spaces. Safety Information. Available online at:

[9] Wells, RE., Slocombe, RF and Trapp, AL. 1982. Acute toxicosis of budgerigars (Melopsittacus

undulatus) caused by pyrolysis products from heated polytetrafluoroethylene: clinical study. Am J

Vet Res 43(7): 1238-42.

[10] Nottingham Internet Resources. 2002. Popular Gas Grills. Cooking on The Gas Grill. Available

online at:

[11] Boucher, M., Ehmler, TJ and Bermudez, AJ. 2000. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in

broiler chickens. Avian Dis 44(2): 449-53.

[12] Stewart, Robert. May 9, 2003 personal communication.


Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C) conversion:

1,500 F (816 C)

1,202 F (650 C)

1,112 F (600 C)

1,000 F (538 C)

932 F (500 C)

887 F (475 C)

878 F (470 C)

800 F (427 C)

750 F (399 C)

700 F (371 C)

680 F (360 C)

662 F (350 C)

536 F (280 C)

500 F (260 C)

464 F (240 C)

396 F (202 C)

350 F (177 C)

325 F (162 C)


Input Keywords,please: